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Mining Engineering. What is a Mining Engineer? - Scientist Tech

Mining:
Mining is the extraction of precious minerals or other geological substances from the Earth, commonly from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits shape a mineralized package deal that is of financial hobby to the miner.

Ores recovered by using mining consist of metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to gain any cloth that can't be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider experience consists of extraction of any non-renewable aid such as petroleum, herbal gas, or even water.
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Mining Engineering:
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth. Mining engineering is related with many different disciplines, such as mineral processing, Exploration, Excavation, geology, and metallurgy, geotechnical engineering and surveying. A mining engineer may control any phase of mining operations – from exploration and discovery of the mineral resource, via feasibility study, mine design, improvement of plans, manufacturing and operations to mine closure.

With the system of Mineral extraction, some quantity of waste and uneconomic material are generated which are the primary supply of pollution in the neighborhood of mines. Mining activities by using their nature motive a disturbance of the natural surroundings in and around which the minerals are located. Mining engineers ought to therefore be worried not solely with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but additionally with the mitigation of harm to the surroundings each throughout and after mining as a result of the alternate in the mining area. Such Industries go through stringent laws to manage the air pollution and injury brought on to the environment and are periodically governed by way of the worried departments.
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What is a Mining Engineer?
A mining and geological engineer is anybody who designs mines for the secure and efficient elimination of minerals (such as coal and metals) for manufacturing and utilities. Mining engineers work mainly in mining operations in remote locations, on the other hand some work in sand-and-gravel operations located close to larger cities.
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History Of Mining Engineering:
From prehistoric instances to the present, mining has performed a large position in the existence of the human race. Since the commencing of civilization humans have used stone and ceramics and, later, metals discovered on or close to the Earth's surface. These have been used to manufacture early tools and weapons. For example, excessive fantastic flint determined in northern France and southern England had been used to set fire and ruin rock. Flint mines have been observed in chalk areas where seams of the stone had been accompanied underground by way of shafts and galleries. The oldest recognized mine on archaeological report is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland. At this site, which radiocarbon courting suggests to be about 43,000 years old, paleolithic human beings mined mineral hematite, which contained iron and was ground to produce the pink pigment ochre.

The historical Romans were innovators of mining engineering. They developed massive scale mining methods, such as the use of giant volumes of water introduced to the minehead by numerous aqueducts for hydraulic mining. The exposed rock used to be then attacked by means of fire-setting where fires have been used to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a circulation of water. The thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed. In some mines the Romans utilized water-powered machinery such as reverse overshot water-wheels. These were used notably in the copper mines at Rio Tinto in Spain, where one sequence comprised sixteen such wheels organized in pairs, lifting water about eighty toes (24 m).

Black powder was once first used in mining in Banská Štiavnica, Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Slovakia) in 1627. This allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and expose ore veins, which used to be a lot faster than fire-setting. The Industrial Revolution saw similarly advances in mining technologies, along with improved explosives and steam-powered pumps, lifts, and drills as lengthy as they remained safe.
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Mining Engineers Typically Do The Following:
two  two Design open-pit and underground mines
two two Supervise the building of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations
two two Devise techniques for transporting minerals to processing plants
two Prepare technical reviews for miners, engineers, and managers
Monitor production fees to assess the effectiveness of operations
two two two Provide solutions to problems related to land reclamation, water and air pollution, and sustainability
two  two Ensure that mines are operated in safe and environmentally sound ways

Mining and geological engineers frequently specialize in one particular mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. They commonly format and advance mines and decide the great way to extract metal or minerals to get the most out of deposits. Some engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to find and consider new deposits. Other mining engineers increase new tools or direct mineral-processing operations to separate minerals from dirt, rock, and other materials.

Mining and geological engineers use strategies grounded in their understanding of geology to search for mineral deposits and evaluate feasible sites. Once a website is identified, they sketch how the metals or minerals will be extracted in environment friendly and environmentally sound ways.

There are many methods to emerge as a Mining Engineer however all consist of a college or university degree. Primarily, coaching consists of a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Mining Engineering. Depending on the usa and jurisdiction, to be licensed as a mining engineer a Master's degree; Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Science (M.Sc or M.S.) or Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) perhaps required. There are additionally mining engineers who have come from other disciplines e.g. from engineering fields like Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Geomatics Engineering, Environmental Engineering or from science fields like Geology, Geophysics, Physics, Geomatics, Earth Science, Mathematics, However, this path requires taking a graduate degree such as M.Eng, M.S., M.Sc. or M.A.Sc. in Mining Engineering after graduating from a extraordinary quantitative undergraduate software in order to be certified as a mining engineer.

The Indispensable Subjects Of  Mining Engineering Study Generally Include:

two Mathematics; Calculus, Algebra, Differential Equations, Numerical Analysis
two  Geoscience; Geochemistry, Geophysics, Mineralogy, Geomatics
two two  Mechanics; Rock mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Geomechanics
two   Thermodynamics; Heat Transfer, Work (thermodynamics), Mass Transfer
two two  Hydrogeology
two two  Fluid Mechanics; Fluid statics, Fluid Dynamics
two  two Geostatistics; Spatial Analysis, Statistics
two  Control Engineering; Control Theory, Instrumentation
Surface Mining; Open-pit mining
two two  Underground mining (soft rock)
two   Underground mining (hard rock)
Computing; MATLAB, Maptek (Vulcan), Golden Software (Surfer), MicroStation
two two two Drilling and blasting
two two two Solid Mechanics; Fracture Mechanics

In the United States, the University of Arizona presents a B.S. in Mining Engineering with tracks in mine operations, geomechanics, sustainable aid development and mineral processing. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology gives a B.S. in Mining Engineering and additionally an M.S. in Mining Engineering and Management and Colorado School of Mines provides a M.S. in Mining and Earth-Systems Engineering, additionally Doctorate (Ph.D.) tiers in Mining and Earth-Systems Engineering and Underground Construction and Tunnel Engineering respectively.

In Canada, McGill University affords both undergraduate (B.Sc. or B.Eng.) and graduate (M.Sc. or M.S.) levels in Mining Engineering. and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver affords a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Mining Engineering and also graduate degrees (M.A.Sc. or M.Eng and Ph.D.) in Mining Engineering.

In Europe most applications are integrated (B.S. plus M.S. into one) after the Bologna Process and take 5 years to complete. In Portugal, the University of Porto presents a M.Eng. in Mining and Geo-Environmental Engineering and in Spain the Technical University of Madrid offers levels in Mining Engineering with tracks in Mining Technology, Mining Operations, Fuels and Explosives, Metallurgy.

In South Africa, leading establishments consist of the University of Pretoria, presenting a 4-year Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng in Mining Engineering) as nicely as post-graduate research in a number of specialty fields such as rock engineering and numerical modelling, explosives engineering, ventilation engineering, underground mining strategies and mine sketch ; and the University of the Witwatersrand offering a 4-year Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.Sc.(Eng.)) in Mining Engineering as well as graduate packages (M.Sc.(Eng.) and Ph.D.) in Mining Engineering.

Some Mining Engineers go on to pursue Doctorate degree programs such as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., DPhil), Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., Eng.D.) these programs involve a very significant original lookup element and are typically seen as entry points into Academia.
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Mining Engineering Education:
There are many ways to emerge as a Mining Engineer however all include a university or university degree. Primarily, education includes a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Mining Engineering. Depending on the usa and jurisdiction, to be licensed as a mining engineer a Master's degree; Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Science (M.Sc or M.S.) or Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) possibly required. There are additionally mining engineers who have come from other disciplines e.g. from engineering fields like Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Geomatics Engineering, Environmental Engineering or from science fields like Geology, Geophysics, Physics, Geomatics, Earth Science, Mathematics, However, this path requires taking a graduate diploma such as M.Eng, M.S., M.Sc. or M.A.Sc. in Mining Engineering after graduating from a distinctive quantitative undergraduate program in order to be qualified as a mining engineer.

The Essential Topics Of Mining Engineering Find Out About Usually Include:

two  two Mathematics; Calculus, Algebra, Differential Equations, Numerical Analysis
two two  Geoscience; Geochemistry, Geophysics, Mineralogy, Geomatics
two  two Mechanics; Rock mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Geomechanics
two two Thermodynamics; Heat Transfer, Work (thermodynamics), Mass Transfer
two Hydrogeology
two   Fluid Mechanics; Fluid statics, Fluid Dynamics
two two Geostatistics; Spatial Analysis, Statistics
two Control Engineering; Control Theory, Instrumentation
two  two Surface Mining; Open-pit mining
two  Underground mining (soft rock)
two two Underground mining (hard rock)
two two  Computing; MATLAB, Maptek (Vulcan), Golden Software (Surfer), MicroStation
two two two Drilling and blasting
two two Solid Mechanics; Fracture Mechanics

In the United States, the University of Arizona gives a B.S. in Mining Engineering with tracks in mine operations, geomechanics, sustainable useful resource development and mineral processing. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology presents a B.S. in Mining Engineering and also an M.S. in Mining Engineering and Management and Colorado School of Mines provides a M.S. in Mining and Earth-Systems Engineering, additionally Doctorate (Ph.D.) tiers in Mining and Earth-Systems Engineering and Underground Construction and Tunnel Engineering respectively.

In Canada, McGill University presents both undergraduate (B.Sc. or B.Eng.) and graduate (M.Sc. or M.S.) stages in Mining Engineering. and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver offers a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Mining Engineering and additionally graduate ranges (M.A.Sc. or M.Eng and Ph.D.) in Mining Engineering.

In Europe most applications are built-in (B.S. plus M.S. into one) after the Bologna Process and take 5 years to complete. In Portugal, the University of Porto gives a M.Eng. in Mining and Geo-Environmental Engineeringand in Spain the Technical University of Madrid provides tiers in Mining Engineering with tracks in Mining Technology, Mining Operations, Fuels and Explosives, Metallurgy.

In South Africa, leading institutions encompass the University of Pretoria, offering a 4-year Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng in Mining Engineering) as well as post-graduate studies in various distinctiveness fields such as rock engineering and numerical modelling, explosives engineering, air flow engineering, underground mining techniques and mine graph ; and the University of the Witwatersrand offering a 4-year Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.Sc.(Eng.)) in Mining Engineering as nicely as graduate packages (M.Sc.(Eng.) and Ph.D.) in Mining Engineering.

Some Mining Engineers go on to pursue Doctorate degree programs such as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., DPhil), Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., Eng.D.) these programs contain a very great unique lookup component and are generally seen as entry factors into Academia.
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What is the workplace of a Mining Engineer like?
Most mining and geological engineers work at mining operations in far flung locations. More experienced engineers can get jobs in offices of mining corporations or consulting companies, which are normally in giant city areas. Those with a master's degree can find employment as a professor in a university.
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Mining Engineering Operation:
Mining engineers working in an established mine may work as an engineer for operations improvement, in addition mineral exploration, and operation capitalization by way of finding out the place in the mine to add tools and personnel. The engineer may additionally also work in supervision and management, or as an equipment and mineral salesperson. In addition to engineering and operations, the mining engineer may also work as an environmental, health and safety supervisor or graph engineer.

The act of mining required one of a kind strategies of extraction depending on the mineralogy, geology, and region of the resources. Characteristics such as mineral hardness, the mineral stratification, and get entry to to that mineral will determine the technique of extraction.

Generally, mining is both achieved from the surface or underground. Mining can additionally happen with each surface and underground operations taking place on the identical reserve. Mining endeavor varies as to what method is employed to put off the mineral.

Mining Process:
Blasting:
Explosives are used to wreck up a rock formation and resource in the collection of ore in a manner called blasting. Blasting makes use of the warmth and massive pressure of the detonated explosives to shatter and fracture a rock mass. The kind of explosives used in mining are excessive explosives which fluctuate in composition and overall performance properties. The mining engineer is responsible for the decision and suited placement of these explosives, in order to maximize effectivity and safety. Blasting happens in many phases of the mining process, such as development of infrastructure as properly as manufacturing of the ore.

Leaching:
Leaching is the loss or extraction of certain substances from a service into a liquid (usually, but now not usually a solvent). Mostly used in rare-earth metals extraction.

Flotation:
Flotation (also spelled floatation) includes phenomena associated to the relative buoyancy of minerals. It is the most extensively used metallic separate method.

Electrostatic Separation:
Separating minerals by electro-characteristic differences.

Gravity Separation:
Gravity separation is an industrial technique of isolating two components, either a suspension, or dry granular mixture the place keeping apart the elements with gravity is sufficiently practical.

Magnetic Separation:
Magnetic separation is a technique in which magnetically inclined cloth is extracted from a combination using a magnetic force.

Hydraulic Separation:
Hydraulic separation is a system that the use of the density distinction to separate minerals. Before hydraulic separation, minerals had been crushed into uniform size; due to the fact minerals have uniform measurement and one-of-a-kind density will have extraordinary settling velocities in water, and that can be used to separate goal minerals.

Surface Mining:
Surface mining consists of 90% of the world's mineral tonnage output. Also known as open pit mining, floor mining is casting off minerals in formations that are at or near the surface. Ore retrieval is accomplished by way of cloth elimination from the land in its herbal state. Surface mining often alters the land characteristics, shape, topography, and geological make-up.

Surface mining includes quarrying which is excavating minerals by ability of machinery such as cutting, cleaving, and breaking. Explosives are normally used to facilitate breakage. Hard rocks such as limestone, sand, gravel, and slate are usually quarried into a series of benches.

Strip mining is executed on softer minerals such as clays and phosphate are removed through use of mechanical shovels, track dozers, and the front end loaders. Softer Coal seams can also be extracted this way.

With placer mining, minerals can also be removed from the bottoms of lakes, rivers, streams, and even the ocean by means of dredge mining. In addition, in-situ mining can be achieved from the surface the use of dissolving marketers on the ore physique and retrieving the ore by way of pumping. The pumped cloth is then set to leach for in addition processing. Hydraulic mining is utilized in types of water jets to wash away either overburden or the ore itself.

Career Opportunities:
At the degree of job opportunities, the civil engineer of the mines and geologist will be capable to combine consulting firms in environment, in civil engineering and in geotechnical prospecting, geological or geophysical. He will be able to promote his studies in mining companies and in the energy field, and in agencies and administrations managing and exploiting groundwater. His scientific history will enable him to aspire to a scientific career in research facilities or universities. He will additionally be capable to use his various capabilities to integrate banks, insurance plan companies, or public institutions.
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Pre Mining:
Mineral exploration is the system of finding ores (commercially attainable concentrations of minerals) to mine. Mineral exploration is a lots more intensive, prepared and expert structure of mineral prospecting and, although it frequently makes use of the services of prospecting, the process of mineral exploration on the total is an awful lot extra involved.

The predominant stage of mining begins with the method of finding and exploration of the mineral deposit. In the initial procedure of mineral exploration, however, the role of geologists and surveyors is prominent in the pre-feasibility find out about of the future mining operation. Mineral exploration and estimation of reserve via various prospecting strategies are carried out to determine the technique and type of mining in addition to profitability condition.

Mining Feasibility Study:
Once the mineral identification and reserve quantity is moderately determined, the next step is to determine the feasibility of recuperating the mineral deposit. A preliminary find out about shortly after the discovery of the credit examines the market stipulations such as the grant and demand of the mineral, the amount of ore wished to be moved to get better a positive quantity of that mineral as nicely as evaluation of the cost related with the operation. This pre-feasibility find out about determines whether the mining assignment is in all likelihood to be profitable; if it is then a extra in-depth analysis of the credit score is undertaken. After the full extent of the ore body is known and has been examined via engineers, the feasibility find out about examines the price of preliminary capital investment, techniques of extraction, the fee of operation, an estimated size of time to payback, the gross revenue and net income margin, any viable resale charge of the land, the total existence of the reserve, the complete fee of the reserve, investment in future projects, and the property proprietor or owners' contract. In addition, environmental impact, reclamation, viable prison ramifications and all government allowing are considered. These steps of evaluation determine whether or not the mine employer  proceed with the extraction of the minerals or whether or not the challenge have to be abandoned. The mining company can also decide to promote the rights to the reserve to a 0.33 celebration rather than advance it themselves, or the choice to proceed with extraction may additionally be postponed indefinitely till market stipulations turn out to be favorable.

Mineral Determination:
After a prospective mineral is located, the mining geologist and/or mining engineer then determines the ore properties. This can also involve chemical evaluation of the ore to decide the composition of the sample. Once the mineral homes are identified, the next step is identifying the quantity of the ore. This entails deciding the extent of the credit score as properly as the purity of the ore. The geologist drills additional core samples to find the limits of the credit score or seam and calculates the volume of treasured fabric current in the deposit.

Mineral Discovery:
Once a mineral discovery has been made, and has been determined to be of enough financial quality to mine, mining engineers will then work on growing a graph to mine this correctly and efficiently.

The discovery can be made from research of mineral maps, academic geological reports or local, state, and country wide geological reports. Other sources of records consist of property assays, nicely drilling logs, and neighborhood phrase of mouth. Mineral research may additionally encompass satellite tv for pc and airborne photographs. Unless the mineral exploration is performed on public property, the proprietors of the property may additionally play a widespread role in the exploration process, and may additionally be the unique discoverer of the mineral deposit.
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Mine Safety and Health Administration:
Legal interest to Mining Health and Safety began in the late nineteenth century and in the subsequent twentieth century advanced to a complete and stringent codification of enforcement and mandatory fitness and security regulation. A mining engineer in anything function they occupy have to follow all federal, state, and neighborhood mine protection laws.

Mine Safety and Health Act Of 1977:
The United States Congress, thru the passage of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, recognised as the Miner's Act, created the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) under the US Department of Labor.

This comprehensive Act gives miners with rights towards retaliation for reporting violations, consolidated law of coal mines with metal and nonmetallic mines, and created the independent Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission to overview MSHA's suggested violations.

The Act as codified in Code of Federal Regulations § 30 (CFR § 30) covers all miners at an lively mine. When a mining engineer works at an energetic mine he or she is problem to the identical rights, violations, obligatory health and security regulations, and mandatory coaching as any different worker at the mine. The mining engineer can be legally recognized as a "miner."

The Act establishes the rights of miners. The miner can also record at any time a hazardous circumstance and request an inspection. The miners can also elect a miners' representative to participate in the course of an inspection, pre-inspection meeting, and post-inspection conference. The miners and miners' representative shall be paid for their time for the duration of all inspections and investigations.
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Mining and the Environment:
Land reclamation is regulated for surface and underground mines according to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The regulation creates as a section of the Department of Interior, the Bureau of Surface Mining (OSM). OSM states on their website, “OSM is charged with balancing the nation’s need for persisted domestic coal manufacturing with safety of the environment.”

The law requires that states set up their own Reclamation Departments and legislate laws associated to reclamation for coal mining operations. The states may impose additional policies and alter different minerals in addition to coal for land reclamation.
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