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Engineering. - Scientist Tech

Engineering:
Engineering is the application of science and math to solve problems. Engineers figure out how matters work and locate practical uses for scientific discoveries. Scientists and inventors frequently get the credit score for improvements that advance the human condition, but it is engineers who are instrumental in making these improvements available to the world.Engineering is the use of scientific ideas to format and construct machines, structures, and other things, inclusive of bridges, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The self-discipline of engineering encompasses a huge range of more specialized fields of engineering, every with a more specific emphasis on specific areas of utilized mathematics, utilized science, and kinds of application. See glossary of engineering.The records of engineering is section and parcel of the history of human civilization. The Pyramids of Giza, Stonehenge, the Parthenon and the Eiffel Tower stand these days as monuments to our heritage of engineering. Today's engineers now not only build large structures, such as the International Space Station, but they are also building maps to the human genome and better, smallercomputer chips.

In his book, "Disturbing the Universe" (Sloan Foundation, 1981), physicist Freeman Dyson wrote, "A true scientist is a character with unique ideas. A top engineer is a individual who makes a design that works with as few original ideas as possible. There are no prima donnas in engineering."

Engineering is one of the cornerstones of STEM education, an interdisciplinary curriculum designed to motivate students to research about science, technology, engineering and mathematics.The term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, that means "cleverness" and ingeniare, that means "to contrive, devise".

History Of Engineering:
Engineering has existed because ancient times, when people devised innovations such as the wedge, lever, wheel and pulley, etc.

The time period engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates lower back to 1390 when an engine'er (literally, one who builds or operates a siege engine) referred to "a constructor of military engines." In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e., a mechanical contraption used in conflict (for example, a catapult). Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are army engineering corps, e.g., the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

The phrase "engine" itself is of even older origin, subsequently deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning "innate quality, mainly intellectual power, as a result a smart invention."

Later, as the plan of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the time period civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military tasks and these involved in the self-discipline of military engineering.

Renaissance Era:
Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was once used by way of artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clockmakers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities have been not believed to have had a good deal practical magnitude to technology.

A trendy reference for the state of mechanical arts in the course of the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica (1556), which additionally includes sections on geology, mining and chemistry. De re metallica was once the popular chemistry reference for the next a hundred and eighty years.

Ancient Era:
The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, amongst many others, stand as a testomony to the ingenuity and skill of historic civil and army engineers. Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and the Pharos of Alexandria have been essential engineering achievements of their time and were regarded among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

The earliest civil engineer acknowledged via identify is Imhotep. As one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he in all likelihood designed and supervised the building of the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt round 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in each civilian and army domains. The Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical innovations of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' innovations as properly as the Antikythera mechanism required state-of-the-art know-how of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in computer idea that helped graph the tools trains of the Industrial Revolution, and are nevertheless extensively used today in numerous fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.

Ancient Chinese, Greek, Roman and Hungarian armies employed navy machines and innovations such as artillery which used to be developed by means of the Greeks round the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet used to be developed.

Modern Era:
The science of classical mechanics, on occasion known as Newtonian mechanics, fashioned the scientific groundwork of a great deal of modern-day engineering. With the upward jostle of engineering as a occupation in the 18th century, the time period grew to become more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science had been utilized to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields then regarded as the mechanic arts became integrated into engineering.

Canal building was an vital engineering work at some stage in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution.

John Smeaton was once the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is frequently regarded as the "father" of civil engineering. He was once an English civil engineer responsible for the format of bridges, canals, harbours, and lighthouses. He used to be also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a mannequin water wheel, Smeaton carried out experiments for seven years, determining approaches to expand efficiency.:127 Smeaton added iron axles and gears to water wheels.:69 Smeaton also made mechanical upgrades to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the 1/3 Eddystone Lighthouse (1755–59) the place he pioneered the use of 'hydraulic lime' (a structure of mortar which will set underneath water) and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. He is essential in the history, rediscovery of, and improvement of contemporary cement, due to the fact he recognized the compositional necessities wanted to attain "hydraulicity" in lime; work which led sooner or later to the invention of Portland cement.The software of steam powered forged iron blowing cylinders for imparting pressurized air for blast furnaces lead to a massive enlarge in iron manufacturing in the late 18th century. The higher furnace temperatures made possible with steam powered blast allowed for the use of extra lime in blast furnaces, which enabled the transition from charcoal to coke. These innovations lowered the fee of iron, making horse railways and iron bridges practical. The puddling process, patented with the aid of Henry Cort in 1784 produced massive scale portions of wrought iron. Hot blast, patented with the aid of James Beaumont Neilson in 1828, noticeably reduced the amount of gasoline wanted to smelt iron. With the development of the high stress steam engine, the power to weight ratio of steam engines made sensible steamboats and locomotives possible. New steel making processes, such as the Bessemer system and the open furnace furnace, ushered in an vicinity of heavy engineering in the late 19th century.The application of steam powered forged iron blowing cylinders for supplying pressurized air for blast furnaces lead to a large extend in iron manufacturing in the late 18th century. The higher furnace temperatures made possible with steam powered blast allowed for the use of extra lime in blast furnaces, which enabled the transition from charcoal to coke. These improvements reduced the fee of iron, making horse railways and iron bridges practical. The puddling process, patented by using Henry Cort in 1784 produced giant scale portions of wrought iron. Hot blast, patented through James Beaumont Neilson in 1828, radically decreased the quantity of gasoline wanted to smelt iron. With the development of the high strain steam engine, the power to weight ratio of steam engines made realistic steamboats and locomotives possible. New steel making processes, such as the Bessemer system and the open fireplace furnace, ushered in an place of heavy engineering in the late 19th century.

Applied science lead to the improvement of the steam engine. The sequence of occasions commenced with the invention the barometer and the dimension of atmospheric pressure by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643, demonstration of the force of atmospheric strain with the aid of Otto von Guericke using the Magdeburg hemispheres in 1656, laboratory experiments by way of Denis Papin, who constructed experimental model steam engines and demonstrated the use of a piston, which he published in 1707. Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester posted a book of 100 innovations containing a technique for raising waters similar to a coffee percolator. Samuel Morland, a mathematician and inventor who labored on pumps, left notes at the Vauxhall Ordinance Office on a steam pump format that Thomas Savery read. In 1698 Savery constructed a steam pump called “The Miner’s Friend.” It employed both vacuum and pressure. Iron service provider Thomas Newcomen, who built the first business piston steam engine in 1712, used to be no longer recognised to have any scientific training.

The foundations of electrical engineering in the 1800s included the experiments of Alessandro Volta, Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric powered telegraph in 1816 and the electric powered motor in 1872. The theoretical work of James Maxwell (see: Maxwell's equations) and Heinrich Hertz in the late nineteenth century gave upward shove to the field of electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the improvement of electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any different engineering specialty. Chemical engineering developed in the late nineteenth century. Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new strategies and by using 1880 the need for giant scale manufacturing of chemical compounds was such that a new enterprise used to be created, devoted to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemical compounds in new industrial plants. The role of the chemical engineer used to be the format of these chemical plants and processes.

Aeronautical engineering deals with aircraft graph process diagram whilst aerospace engineering is a extra present day time period that expands the attain of the discipline with the aid of which includes spacecraft design. Its origins can be traced again to the aviation pioneers round the start of the twentieth century although the work of Sir George Cayley has lately been dated as being from the remaining decade of the 18th century. Early know-how of aeronautical engineering was generally empirical with some concepts and abilities imported from other branches of engineering.

The first PhD in engineering (technically, utilized science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Josiah Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it used to be also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.

Only a decade after the profitable flights by way of the Wright brothers, there was massive development of aeronautical engineering through improvement of military plane that had been used in World War I. Meanwhile, lookup to provide indispensable heritage science persevered with the aid of combining theoretical physics with experiments.One of the most famous engineers of the mid nineteenth century used to be Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who constructed railroads, dockyards and steamships.

The Industrial Revolution created a demand for machinery with steel parts, which led to the improvement of numerous computer tools. Boring forged iron cylinders with precision used to be no longer possible until John Wilkinson invented his boring machine, which is considered the first computer tool. Other desktop equipment included the screw slicing lathe, milling machine, turret lathe and the metal planer. Precision machining techniques were developed in the first half of the nineteenth century. These blanketed the use of gigs to information the machining device over the work and fixtures to preserve the work in the suitable position. Machine tools and machining methods succesful of producing interchangeable components lead to massive scale manufacturing unit manufacturing with the aid of the late nineteenth century.

The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of "engineer" for the first time with a count of 2,000. There had been fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U.S. before 1865. In 1870 there have been a dozen U.S. mechanical engineering graduates, with that wide variety increasing to forty three per year in 1875. In 1890, there have been 6,000 engineers in civil, mining, mechanical and electrical.

There used to be no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics at Cambridge until 1875, and no chair of engineering at Oxford until 1907. Germany installed technical universities earlier.

What Does An Engineer Do?
Engineers design, evaluate, develop, test, modify, install, inspect and preserve a large variety of merchandise and systems. They additionally advise and specify substances and processes, supervise manufacturing and construction, conduct failure analysis, provide consulting services and instruct engineering publications in faculties and universities.

The area of engineering is divided into a giant wide variety of area of expertise areas:
Mechanical engineering entails design, manufacturing, inspection and renovation of machinery, gear and factors as well as manage structures and instruments for monitoring their repute and performance. This includes vehicles, construction and farm machinery, industrial installations and a extensive range of tools and devices.

Electrical engineering involves design, testing, manufacturing, construction, control, monitoring and inspection of electrical and electronic devices, machinery and systems. These structures vary in scale from microscopic circuits to national energy generation and transmission systems.

Civil engineering involves design, construction, renovation and inspection of large infrastructure projects such as highways, railroads, bridges, tunnels, dams and airports.

Aerospace engineering entails design, manufacturing and trying out of plane and spacecraft as well as parts and components such as airframes, strength plants, control and education systems, electrical and digital systems, and verbal exchange and navigation systems.

Nuclear engineering involves design, manufacturing, construction, operation and trying out of equipment, systems and techniques involving the production, manipulate and detection of nuclear radiation. These systems include particle accelerators and nuclear reactors for electric powered electricity flora and ships, radioisotope manufacturing and research. Nuclear engineering also includes monitoring and defending humans from the probably detrimental consequences of radiation.

Structural engineering involves design, building and inspection of load-bearing buildings such large commercial buildings, bridges and industrial infrastructure.

Biomedical engineering is the practice of designing systems, equipment and units for use in the exercise of medicine. It also includes working intently with scientific practitioners, which includes doctors, nurses, technicians, therapists and researchers, in order to determine, recognize and meet their requirements for systems, tools and devices.

Chemical engineering is the practice of designing equipment, structures and techniques for refining uncooked substances and for mixing, compounding and processing chemical compounds to make precious products.

Computer engineering is the practice of designing pc hardware components, pc systems, networks and laptop software.

Industrial engineering is the exercise of designing and optimizing facilities, equipment, systems and approaches for manufacturing, cloth processing, and any range of other work environments.

Environmental engineering is the practice of preventing, decreasing and eliminating sources of pollution that have an effect on air, water and land. It additionally includes detecting and measuring air pollution levels, determining sources of pollution, cleansing up and rehabilitating polluted web sites and ensuring compliance with local, country and federal regulations.

There is regularly significant overlap amongst the one-of-a-kind specialties. For this reason, engineers need to have a regular understanding of numerous areas of engineering besides their specialty. For example, a civil engineer wants to recognize standards of structural engineering, an aerospace engineer needs to follow concepts of mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineers need a working understanding of electrical engineering.

Particularly, engineers require in-depth expertise of mathematics, physics and laptop applications such as simulations and computer-aided design. This is why most college applications include fundamental engineering guides in a vast range of topics earlier than college students choose to specialize in a unique area.

Engineering Methodology:
If more than one solutions exist, engineers weigh every format choice based on their merit and pick the answer that first-class fits the requirements. The critical and unique mission of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a layout in order to yield a profitable result. It is usually insufficient to build a technically successful product, rather, it should additionally meet in addition requirements.In the engineering graph process, engineers practice arithmetic and sciences such as physics to locate novel solutions to issues or to enhance existing solutions. More than ever, engineers are now required to have a educated know-how of relevant sciences for their design projects. As a result, many engineers continue to study new material at some stage in their career.

Constraints may encompass accessible resources, physical, ingenious or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as necessities for cost, safety, marketability, productivity, and serviceability. By appreciation the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits inside which a attainable object or device may additionally be produced and operated.

Engineering Problem Solving:
Usually, more than one realistic options exist, so engineers need to consider the extraordinary design picks on their deserves and pick out the answer that fantastic meets their requirements. Genrich Altshuller, after gathering information on a giant range of patents, suggested that compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher stage the best format is one which eliminates the core contradiction inflicting the problem.Engineers normally attempt to predict how nicely their designs will perform to their specs prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes, scale models, simulations, negative tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will function as expected.

The study of failed products is acknowledged as forensic engineering and can help the product designer in evaluating his or her plan in the mild of actual conditions. The discipline is of biggest value after disasters, such as bridge collapses, when cautious evaluation is wished to establish the cause or reasons of the failure.Engineers take on the duty of producing designs that will function as nicely as anticipated and will now not purpose unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers commonly encompass a aspect of protection in their designs to limit the chance of sudden failure.

Engineering Computer Use:
One of the most widely used format equipment in the career is computer-aided layout (CAD) software. It allows engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of their designs. CAD collectively with digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as finite component technique analysis or analytic element technique lets in engineers to create fashions of designs that can be analyzed barring having to make expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes.

These allow products and aspects to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; find out about ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic traits of structures such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this facts is commonly equipped with the use of product facts administration software.As with all cutting-edge scientific and technological endeavors, computer systems and software program play an increasingly more necessary role. As properly as the regular commercial enterprise application software program there are a quantity of laptop aided applications (computer-aided technologies) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate fashions of crucial physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods.

There are additionally many equipment to help particular engineering tasks such as computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software to generate CNC machining instructions; manufacturing technique administration software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board (PCB) and circuit schematics for digital engineers; MRO functions for preservation management; and Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) software for civil engineering.In latest years the use of computer software program to useful resource the improvement of items has at the same time come to be recognised as product lifecycle management (PLM).

Engineering jobs & salaries:
Most engineering jobs require at least a bachelor's diploma in engineering. State certification as a Professional Engineer, which requires passing a rigorous and comprehensive test, is additionally required through many employers and to work as a consultant. Senior engineering positions and professorships generally require a master's diploma or a doctorate.Many employers require engineers to reap kingdom certification as Professional Engineers. Additionally, many engineers belong to the American Society of Professional Engineers and different engineering societies for their areas of specialization.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has information on a variety of specialised fields of engineering, such as instructional requirements, job descriptions, work environments and job outlooks. Another supply of facts on job descriptions, academic requirements and required skills and information for extraordinary areas of engineering can be found at MyMajors.com.

Engineers work in many special settings, according to the BLS, together with research laboratories, factories, development sites, nuclear energy plants, offshore oil rigs and even on the International Space Station. Additionally, many engineers work in groups associated to their areas of specialization; for example, an HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) engineer would possibly own a heating and air conditioning company, and a structural engineer would possibly personal a development company.

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Employment of engineers is projected to develop from four to 27 percent between now and 2022, depending on the discipline of specialization, in accordance to the BLS. According to Salary.com, a newly graduated engineer with a bachelor's degree can count on to earn from $50,817 to $78,487 per year; a mid-level engineer with a master's degree and 5 to 10 years of trip can earn $68,628 to $114,426; and a senior engineer with a master's degree or doctorate and greater than 15 years of ride can earn $91,520 to $156,895. Many skilled engineers are promoted to management positions or begin their very own consulting groups the place they can earn even more. Additionally, some engineers go on to law college to come to be patent attorneys, the place they can earn upward of $250,000 per year.

Engineering has matured and accelerated over the centuries along with our expertise and appreciation of science, arithmetic and the legal guidelines of physics and their applications. Today, engineers practice both well-established scientific concepts and trendy innovations in order to design, build, improve, function and hold complex devices, structures, structures and processes.As the novelist James A. Michener aptly put it in his novel "Space" (Fawcett, 1983), "Scientists dream about doing amazing things. Engineers do them."

It was once engineering that brought us out of the caves; it used to be engineering that took us to the moon; and if we ever make it to the stars, it will be engineering that takes us there. As our knowledge continues to advance, engineers will have new opportunities to find realistic uses for scientific discoveries.

Engineering Social Context:
The engineering occupation engages in a large range of activities, from massive collaboration at the societal level, and also smaller person projects. Almost all engineering projects are obligated to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open-design engineering.Engineering is a key driver of innovation and human development. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, has a very small engineering potential which results in many African international locations being unable to develop fundamental infrastructure without outside aid.(citation needed) The attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the fulfillment of ample engineering capability to strengthen infrastructure and sustainable technological development.

By its very nature engineering has interconnections with society, tradition and human behavior. Every product or construction used through modern-day society is influenced by engineering. The consequences of engineering recreation influence changes to the environment, society and economies, and its software brings with it a responsibility and public safety.All foreign places improvement and relief NGOs make sizeable use of engineers to observe options in catastrophe and development scenarios. A quantity of charitable agencies goal to use engineering directly for the suitable of mankind:
Engineers Without Borders
two  Engineers Against Poverty
two   Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief
two  Engineers for a Sustainable World
two two Engineering for Change
two  Engineering Ministries International
Engineering organizations in many set up economies are facing big challenges with regard to the number of professional engineers being trained, in contrast with the variety retiring. This hassle is very prominent in the UK the place engineering has a terrible photo and low status. There are many bad financial and political troubles that this can cause, as nicely as moral issues. It is broadly agreed that the engineering profession faces an "image crisis", instead than it being basically an unattractive career. Much work is wanted to avoid big troubles in the UK and different western economies.

By its very nature engineering has interconnections with society, tradition and human behavior. Every product or building used via present day society is influenced by using engineering. The outcomes of engineering exercise have an effect on adjustments to the environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a responsibility and public safety.

Engineering Ethics:
Many engineering societies have hooked up codes of practice and codes of ethics to information participants and inform the public at large. The National Society of Professional Engineers code of ethics states:

Engineering is an important and realized profession. As members of this profession, engineers are anticipated to exhibit the absolute best standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and fundamental impact on the high-quality of lifestyles for all people. Accordingly, the services furnished by way of engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and need to be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers have to function under a general of expert conduct that requires adherence to the absolute best principles of moral conduct.In Canada, many engineers put on the Iron Ring as a symbol and reminder of the tasks and ethics related with their profession.

Engineering Art:
There are connections between engineering and art, for example, architecture, landscape structure and industrial sketch (even to the extent that these disciplines might also sometimes be covered in a university's Faculty of Engineering).

The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design. Robert Maillart's bridge format is perceived by using some to have been deliberately artistic. At the University of South Florida, an engineering professor, thru a provide with the National Science Foundation, has developed a path that connects art and engineering.

Among famous historical figures, Leonardo da Vinci is a commonplace Renaissance artist and engineer, and a prime instance of the nexus between artwork and engineering.
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